Hardaway spearpoints are primarily found in two regions of the U.S. Native to North Carolina, southern Virginia and Massachusetts, Hardaways date to 10,000-11,000 years BP. Hardaway points are considered to be atlatl darts, and are side-notched for easy hafting to a spearshaft using sinew.
The Archaic period, which begins about 8000 BC, is very close to the end of the Paleo period, a time of mass extinction of the Megafauna in North America. This is also the time period in which man exits the archaeological record, (for the most part), for nearly 4000 years from what is now known as New York State. Although Stone Age New York has found evidence that man was indeed here during this period, it is generally accepted by archaeologists that man did not inhabit New York again until the Brewerton and Lamoka interval thousands of years later.
Why did Paleoindians disappear from the archaeological record? Were they exterminated by the great Megafauna extinction event? Or could they have moved, perhaps south and west, driven by the terrible conditions that made the Megafauna history? The sheer beauty of the Hardaway atlatl dart shows us that by 8000 BC hunting technology had advanced to a previously unknown level of sophistication.
These Hardaway points show us that the Hardaway peoples either lived in, or visited western New York State, hundreds of miles from their known territory.
Photo 1: Hardaway Points from the Genesee River valley.
Stone tool set. Handled stone knife and stone Clovis Point. Artifacts were found in close proximity to each other and may have been made and used by the same person. Knife features a raised handle that fits comfortably between thumb and index finger. Side view of knife shows handle is raised from blade approximately half an inch. Clovis Point has small flute at base and tip, and was probably also used as a knife. Clovis and related peoples made knives of different styles for different tasks.
Also featured is a hammer stone. Tool is based on Clovis curved stone typology. Uniface tool is enhanced to show detail. With a thickness of 3/4 of an inch, this tool is durable and ready for heavy duty use as a hammer or weapon. Curved stone technology was used to create a variety of tools, including knives, drills and hammers.
Photo 1: Artifacts resemble outline of New York State.
Photo 2: Handled stone knife and stone Clovis Point.
Photo 3: Side view of handled knife.
Photo 4: Hammer stone based on curved stone typology.
This assemblage of nine Clovis/Clovis related points typifies the various forms of paleo stone tools found in the Genesee valley. Fluted chert tools of lanceolate, curved and triangular form are represented. Tools such as these performed a variety of functions including drilling, cutting and scraping as well as service as a hunting point.
Group of tools include weapon point, handaxe, knife, perforator and atlatl dart. Paleo stone tool culture was well established along the waterways that flowed through forests of cedar, oak, tamarack, birch and jackpine that grew south of the Great Lakes at the close of the Pleistocene. These forests were seperated from the Port Huron ice sheet by a zone of tundra that was teeming with mammoth, mastadon, giant beaver, caribou, elk and deer.
Photo 1: Fluted tools of Genesee paleo stone tool culture. Artifacts are based on lanceolate, curved and triangular typolgy.
Paleo twist drills. Tools exhibit wide base for thumb grip and a fluted tip. Artifacts are a variation on curved Clovis typology. By widening the base and narrowing the tip of the artifact a twist drill is formed. This method of building a tool using a variation of typology style became a craft that was passed from person to person as the local standardized version of twist drill manufacture in paleo Indian times. This is evidenced from the locatiion of the artifacts which were found 40 miles apart. Without modern communication and transportation conviences, advanced standardized stone tool manufacturing mehods were shared over long distances by people who had no obvious means of exchanging ideas other than foot travel and oral communication.
Photo 1: Clovis/Clovis-related fluted artifacts
A pair of flint tools, handaxe and smaller knife. Both artifacts evident similar flaking stye. Curved stone culture lived in the Genesee Valley, perhaps as its original human inhabitants at the close of the Wisconsin. Curved artifacts are more common than lanceolate ones in this part of New York State. What does this mean? Were lanceolate and curved artifacts produced at the same time, by the same people, or could one culture be older than the other? If there were two or more cultures co-existing, did those cultures originate from different locales?
Curved stone weapon technology is an advanced form of artifact engineering that had to of evolved. As its practicioners made their weapon points deadlier in order to better perfect their hunting skills, stone tool makers incorporated sophisticated weapon technology into their hunting arsenal.
Photo 1: Brown flint handaxe and small blue flint knife. Front view.
Photo 2: Curved flint tools, dorsal side.